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教师考试英语笔试中,主谓一致的考查也是常有的,在此给大家再整理一下英语考试中的这个知识点,希望能够帮助到各位备考的考生。

主谓一致指“人称”和“数”方面的一致关系,即指“主语和谓语动词”之间的一致关系,要求谓语动词在人称和数上要和主语保持一致。主谓一致包括语法一致、意义一致和就近一致,语法一致即谓语动词在单复数形式上要和主语保持一致,意义一致就是谓语动词要和主语意义上的单复数保持一致,就近一致就是谓语动词要和靠近它的主语部分保持一致。主谓一致常考查内容涉及名词单数或复数作主语、不可数名词作主语、不定代词作主语、并列结构作主语、特殊名词作主语时与谓语动词数的一致等。

主谓一致中最基本的原则是:单数主语用单数动词,复数主语用复数动词。但在实际使用当中情况比较复杂,常考"表里不一"现象,现将主谓一致中常犯的错误归纳整理如下:

1.如果主语有more than one很多 非常…或many a许多……构成,one a half与单数名词组成的短语。尽管从意义上看是复数内容,但它的谓语动词仍用单数形式。如:

More than one student has read the book.

Many a girl has been there.

Many a boy has seen it. 许多孩子都看到了。

但是,“more +复数名词+than one”结构之后,谓语动词一般多用复数形式。如:

More members than one are against your plan.

A pair of shoes was on the desk.

Many a child was playing there. 很多小孩在那儿玩。

More than one student has failed the exam. 不止一个学生考试未及格。

2. each作主语或修饰主语时

1)单独用作主语(或修饰主语),谓语用单数:

Each student has his own desk. 每个学生都有自己的课桌。

Two boys entered. Each was carrying a suitcase. 两个男孩进来,每人提着一只箱子。

【注意】

(1) 两个或多个“each+单数名词”结构并列作主语时, 谓语用单数。

(2) “each of+复数名词或代词”用作主语, 谓语一般要用单数

Each of them was deeply frightened. 他们个个都惊恐万分。

但是在非正式文体中(尤其是当 each of之后的名词较长时)偶尔也可用复数谓语,但很少见,学生宜慎用。

2)each 用于复数名词后作同位语

此时谓语动词用复数:

They each have an English-Chinese dictionary. 他们每人都有一本英汉词典。

The young people each carry a big bag. 这些年轻人个个背着一个大袋子。

3. 主语后接in addition to, with, along with, together with, except, but等介词

其后的动词形式取决介词前主语:

Nothing but trees was to be seen. 除了树木之外什么也看不见。

No one except my parents knows anything about this. 除我父母外没人知道此事。

Jim, together with his classmates, has seen the film. 吉姆和他的同学都看过这部电影。

4. 有些名词的单数和复数形式一样, 作主语的时候, 其谓语动词单复数由上下文决定(尤其注意其前的修饰语),这一类名词有: means, works, deer, fish, sheep, Chinese,Japanese等。

Not every means is useful. 不是每种方法都好使。

Not all means are useful. 不是所有的方法都好使。

These means are very good. 这些方法很好。

Such a means is really unpleasant. 这样的方法确实是令人不愉快。

若没有特定的修饰语或语境,则用单数或复数谓语均可:

There is [are] no good means. 没有好的方法。

Are [Is] there any other means of doing it? 做这事还有其他的什么办法吗?

5. kind“种类”作主语

this kind of book = a book of this kind (这种书) , 其谓语用单数; 短语this kind of men = men of this kind = these kind of men (口语) (这一类人), 但this kind of men 的谓语用单数, men of this kind 和these kind of men 的谓语用复数, all kinds of 后跟复数名词, 谓语用复数形式。例如:

This kind of men is dangerous.

Men of this kind are dangerous.

6. 在主谓倒装的句子中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。例如:

Between the two windows hangs a picture.

7.“分数或百分数+名词”构成的短语以及由“ a lot of, lots of, plenty of, a large quantity of, a heap of, heaps of, half of + 名词”构成的短语作主语时,其谓语动词要与短语中of 后面的名词的数保持一致,这是因为短语中后面的名词是中心词,而短语中前面的量词是修饰语。例如:

Lots of damage was caused by fire.

About three-fourths of the earth’s surface is covered with water.

Three-fifths of the workers here are women.

和这种情况类似的还有“a number of + 名词复数”。但是,“the number of + 名词”的中心词却是number。试比较:

A number of students have gone to the countryside to help with the autumn harvest.

The number of pages in this book is two hundred.

【补充】

a (large) quantity of 修饰可数或不可数名词, 其短语作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

A large quantity of people is needed here.

quantities of 修饰可数或不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词一般用复数。例如:

Quantities of food (nuts) were on the table.

短语in quantity, in large quantities 意为 “大量”; in small quantities 意为“少量”。

8. 表时间长度、钱数、速度等的词组作主语,此时通常将其视为整体,谓语用单数。如:

Twenty years is a long time. 20年是很长的时间。

Ten dollars is all I have left. 我只剩下10美元。

以上介绍了主谓一致易错点,希望对各位考生有所帮助。


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